Papilloma among all benign formations of a person occurs most often. Few people do not know what papilloma is. Despite the fact that this is a benign process, it can bring a lot of problems with its appearance. And with constant trauma to such a formation on the skin, the risk of degenerating it into a malignant tumor increases.
What causes the pathology
What is papilloma and how does it look? Papillomas are small pathological neoplasms on human skin. They can occur on any part of the body. They look like single or multiple neoplasms, or warts, of various colors – from light brown to gray shades. In a section, these neoplasms are modified parts of the epidermis, prone to overgrowth.
The appearance of neoplasms on the skin is most often caused by the human papillomavirus (HPV). This virus has up to hundreds of different strains, and depending on which strain caused the disease, human papillomas have a different shape and appearance.
Most often, HPV infection occurs through sexual contact, it is also possible infection through the household, in the presence of microcracks on the skin. It is impossible to cure papillomavirus, but it can be muffled for a long time.
With this disease, papillomas may not appear immediately, but after a long time, when the immune system fails. After infection with the virus, the incubation period can last up to several years and not show any symptoms.
If you have such formations on the skin, do not neglect them, consult a doctor immediately. It is better to remove the neoplasm if it is in an inconvenient place and is injured, since in this case a malignancy process is possible. The doctor will determine which tumors need to be disposed of immediately and which do not need to be removed.
Types of Papillomas
Looking at how a person’s papilloma looks, you can determine what kind of formations it refers to. And there are many, more than a hundred. It is the structure of the papilloma that allows it to be attributed to one or another species. Depending on which strain of HPV the disease is caused, papillomas are vulgar, plantar, filiform, squamous, basal cell.
Vulgar – formations having a pineal shape, dense to the touch. Over time, they darken and become rough. The size of such formations ranges from 0.1 cm to 1 cm in diameter. Most often they are localized on the hands or knees.
Another kind of papillomas is plantar. This type of formation is often confused with calluses, but they have distinctive features. Plantar papillomas lack a skin pattern, and on calluses it is preserved. Education has all the external signs of a vulgar papilloma, when wearing tight shoes, painful sensations appear.
Filamentous papillomas are very common, they grow on a thin stalk and have an elongated shape. Such formations appear in people after 40 years, their places of localization are the eyelids, neck, and inguinal region.
The type of papilloma, called squamous, occurs due to the growth of squamous skin epithelium. This formation is on a thin stalk or a tumor that has a wide base, can reach a size of 2 cm in diameter. With regular injury, it can become inflamed, its cells mutate into cancerous. In this case, a squamous type of cancer develops.
This type of education, as a single papilloma, usually occurs imperceptibly and does not cause anxiety to the patient. But with frequent injury, it can grow to large sizes.
In older people, basal cell papilloma most often occurs. It is a flat formation, which eventually changes its color to brown. Its dimensions can vary from 0.1 to 4 cm in diameter.
People who are faced with the appearance of formations on the skin are concerned about the question of what is papilloma and how to treat it. There are many treatment options, the doctor can choose the best method for the patient in each case after a diagnosis.
If the patient has confirmed the presence of HPV, then for prophylaxis purposes, cytostatic therapy may be prescribed. Its purpose is the inhibition of cell division of malignant tumors and formations, inhibition of the development of the HPV virus. In the case when a person has papillomavirus, but there are still no formations on the skin, such therapy can delay their appearance for decades.
People who are carriers of HPV need to undergo regular examinations in order to choose the right treatment and not miss the occurrence of pathological changes in the body.
Of the drugs with a cytostatic effect, such drugs as Podophyllin, Isoprinosine, Bleomycin, Fluorouracil, and popular external drugs Epigen, Betadine are most often used. The strategy for how to treat papillomavirus and the drugs that will be used are chosen by the doctor depending on the type of HPV, the age of the patient, and other factors. In addition to cytostatic drugs in the treatment of HPV, the use of interferons is recommended – drugs that increase the body's immune defense.
The most effective method of combating papillomas that allows you to get rid of them is removal.
Removal of skin lesions
Depending on the size and type of neoplasm, a doctor may choose one of the existing methods for removing papillomas. The most popular of them – is the removal of liquid nitrogen, laser, using radio waves and electrocoagulation.
The method of freezing tumors using liquid nitrogen is called cryodestruction. During this procedure, due to the low temperature properties of nitrogen, the tissues and blood vessels around the tumor are frozen, as a result of which it is necrotic and detached from the skin surface. If it has deep roots, several cryodestruction procedures may be needed. As a rule, this procedure is painless.
Electrocoagulation is a method of influencing the papilloma with an electric current, as a result of which its blood supply stops, the small vessels around the tumor coagulate. This procedure stops the spread of the virus.
Laser removal is the most effective and painless method to date. As a rule, in order to remove the neoplasm, one procedure is enough. Under the action of the laser beam, the papilloma cells dry up, and it takes the form of a scab. A few days after the procedure, this crust will disappear.
The method of radio wave surgery is no less effective than laser removal, it consists in the removal of papillomas by radio waves. After such an effect on the neoplasm, there are no traces left on the skin. The damage site heals very quickly. The disadvantage of this method is its high cost.
Most people know what papilloma is and what negative consequences HPV infection can have for the body. Therefore, it is necessary to observe preventive measures both to prevent infection with this virus, and to prevent relapse in carriers of the virus. Papilloma prophylaxis includes:
- regular tests for the presence of HPV in the blood;
- control over the growth and forms of existing neoplasms;
- the use of barrier methods of protection in case of accidental sexual contacts;
- immunity support.
Another prevention method is HPV vaccination. It is carried out according to the schedule – three vaccinations for six months, vaccines Cervarix or Gardasil.
Folk remedies for papillomas
People have long been worried about the question of what papillomas are and most importantly how to get rid of them. In addition to the methods of traditional treatment of papillomas, recipes of traditional medicine are very popular. One of these remedies is celandine; its juice contains a substance that removes neoplasms. Fresh juice of this plant must be applied to the formation on the skin and sealed with a band-aid. It is recommended to do this daily until the papilloma completely disappears.
In folk medicine, garlic is also used to treat papillomas. It must be thoroughly crushed and mixed with any cream in a ratio of 1 to 2. The resulting mixture must be applied daily to the neoplasm, covering with a band-aid or bandage. This mixture is applied for 3 hours, after which it is washed off with running water. This course of treatment can last from 2 weeks to a month.
To prepare the next solution, it is necessary to grind unripe walnuts in a blender. Walnut mass should be at least 2/3 liter cans. Add pure kerosene to the jar and let it sit in the refrigerator for 20 days. Then you need to filter the resulting liquid and lubricate the neoplasms with it twice a day until they disappear completely. Usually the course of treatment lasts three weeks.
When using traditional methods of treating papillomas, be careful. Do not allow these solutions to enter the body and mucous membranes.